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中加联合野外课程博客(中国镜像站)

中加联合野外课程历年博客汇总

 
 
 

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[2013年8月16日] - 欢乐而充实的一天 A fun-filled action packed day  

2013-08-26 09:58:33|  分类: 2013 Field Cours |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Blog Entry Written by Team: Hoary Sedges (Carex canescens)

Team Members: Leslie Bothwell (Queens)  Ziruo DING (Tongji), Yueting XING (BNU), Qi Liu (Fudan)

 [2013年8月16日] - 欢乐而充实的一天 A fun-filled act<wbr>ion packed day - 中加联合野外课程 - 中加联合野外课程博客(中国镜像站)[2013年8月16日] - 欢乐而充实的一天 A fun-filled act<wbr>ion packed day - 中加联合野外课程 - 中加联合野外课程博客(中国镜像站)

 
[2013年8月16日] - 欢乐而充实的一天 A fun-filled act<wbr>ion packed day - 中加联合野外课程 - 中加联合野外课程博客(中国镜像站)
 
            Today was a fun-filled action packed day.  Our day kicked off with a seminar by Professor Dale Kristensen, a wetlands specialist and environmental consultant from Queen’s University.  The seminar gave a brief overview of freshwater wetlands and their roles as providers of natural water filtration and abundant biological diversity.  Wetlands are known to be one of the most biological diverse ecosystems, standing second next to Estuaries in terms of kilocalories of primary production per year according to Kristensen.   

             We were interested to learn about skewed social perceptions of wetlands, where historically these swampy areas were viewed as noxious unwanted lands.  Settlers in the America’s in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries saw these areas as unproductive and useless, which led to the practice of filling in wetlands to enable agricultural production on the land.  This negative perception of wetlands as fruitless areas to be disregarded persisted until the late twentieth century when the importance of maintaining wetlands became widely realized.  Today, wetlands are viewed as integral rather than impeding to development.  Laws exist in Canada mandating the creation of a wetland for flood management and water filtration in areas of high housing development. 

             Dr. Kristensen’s passion for nature and extensive knowledge of wetlands ecosystems were evident in his discussion.  Following the seminar, we put on our rubber boots and set out on an informative walk through the wetlands that surround the QUBS field station.  We observed some of the species of a lacustrine marsh off the dock in some of the deeper waters (lacustrine being a wetland associated with a lake).  Lake Opinicon, the lake which surrounds the center, was previously a large wetland that was flooded during the creation of the Rideau Canal in the eighteen hundreds.  Many parts of the area still qualify as a wetland, the qualifications being in water less than two meters deep.  We observed Coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum) and eelgrass (genus Vallisneria).  The eel grass had an interesting characteristic of pollination through male plants releasing pollen granules into the water to be accepted by the female plants.  We also observed duckweed (Lemna trisulca), a plant which can be commonly found floating on water in wetlands. 

             Our walk took us to Cow Island Marsh, where we observed frogsbit (Limnobium spongia), a plant that can be destructive to diversity in wetlands as it covers the top of the water blocking the entrance of sunlight and increasing the rate of Eutrophication.  We observed a neat looking spiny plant, Button Bush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), a North American relative of the coffee plant.  We wonder whether it may taste as good as conventional tropical java.

             Following our walk through the Cow Island Marsh, we drove to a Palustrine Marsh, a wetland characterized by the presence of trees and emergent vegetation.  We observed Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), an invasive species native to Europe, watching as swallowtail butterflies (Papilio machaon) flew about the purple flowers. 

           In the afternoon, we switched gears and were led through a fish seining exercise by Dr. Wang.  We used nets to safely catch and release fresh water fish, with the groups running the larger net reaching upwards of 100 fish in a catch.  Some of the species of fish we observed include Pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus), Blue Gill (Lepomis macrochirus), Inaldn Silverside (Menidia beryllina), Large Mouth Bass (Micropterus salmonoides), Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) and White Sucker (Catostomus commersonii).  We took oxygen and pH readings of the water prior to the fish seining exercise to practice proper field recordings with environmental data included. 

            Following our fun in-the-field day, we sat down for some interesting seminars that all related to pollutants, covering the topics of oil spills, agriculture run-off, acid rain and bioremediation.  The day concluded with an interesting discussion regarding controversies of global ownership of pollutants and environmental problems on an international scale; both students from China and Canada engaged in the debate bringing an expansive variety of viewpoints to the table.

 

今天也有着丰富的活动安排。首先我们听了从事湿地生态环境研究的Dale Kristensen教授的讲座,讲座介绍了淡水湿地的概念,并阐述了其在自然水净化与增加生物多样性中起到的巨大作用。众所周知,作为生物多样性最丰富的生境之一,湿地每年拥有巨大的初级生产量,仅次于河口生态系统。而我们更多关注的则是社会对于湿地的认知,由于湿地生态系统如沼泽,长期以来一直被其弊大于利。如十七世纪至十八世纪抵达美洲的殖民者便将湿地视为无生产力的废用土地,并将湿地的水排出,以便进行农业生产。直到二十世纪末,湿地的价值才逐渐为人们所知。如今,湿地已经被认为是生产发展的重要组成部分之一,而不再是阻碍。在加拿大也有了相关法律,规定在密集发展地区与洪水多发地区建立人工湿地以净化水源并吸纳洪水。

讲座之后,Kristensen教授带我们参观了QUBS基地附近的生境。首先是基地后身码头附近的湖泊湿地,Lake Opinicon。这片湖泊曾经作为沼泽湿地,直到十九世纪由于Rideau运河的建成而被水淹没,现在湖边仍留有很多作为沼泽发挥生态作用的湿地。在这里,我们观察到了一些水生植物如coontailCeratophyllum demersum),eel grass(属名Vallisneria),其中eel grass是水媒传粉的典型生物之一。我们也观察到了随轮船平衡水而进入生态系统的入侵植物duckweedLemna rrisulca)。

Cow Island MarshlandKristensen教授为我们介绍了另一种入侵植物:Limnobium spongia,其在水面生长大量叶片郁闭下方光照,导致水中其他生物如藻类无法正常生长,最终毁灭当地生态系统。在此我们也见到了一种原产于美洲的作为咖啡近亲的多刺植物,Button BushCephalanthus occidentalis

Cow Island Marshland的旅途之后,我们驾车前往了Palustrine Marsh。这是一片被公路隔断的湿地。在这里我们看到了原产于欧洲的入侵植物Purple LoosestrifeLythrum salicaria),以及为它传粉的swallowtailed butterflyPapilio machaon

下午,我们在王教授的带领下用大小两种渔网对沿岸地区与开阔水域分别进行了鱼类网捕。在测试了水的温度、pH、含氧量等指标之后,我们收网捕捉到了PumpkinseedLepomis gibbosus),Blue GillLepomis macrochirus),Inaldn SilversideMenidia beryllina),Largen Mouth BassMicropterus salmonoides),Yellow PerchPerca flavescens)以及White SuckerCatostomus commersonii)等多种鱼类。在观察统计之后,我们将鱼放归了水中。

在一天的野外调查之后,我们回到基地并进行了同学间的小讲座交流。今天的小讲座主要包括原油泄漏、农业废水、酸雨以及生物降解。最终以同学间对于全球污染的处理方面的自由讨论作结。



[2013年8月16日] - 欢乐而充实的一天 A fun-filled act<wbr>ion packed day - 中加联合野外课程 - 中加联合野外课程博客(中国镜像站)[2013年8月16日] - 欢乐而充实的一天 A fun-filled act<wbr>ion packed day - 中加联合野外课程 - 中加联合野外课程博客(中国镜像站)

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