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(Dip net on coast of reconstructed wetland, LinGang City.)
We began our day early today, meeting on our bus at 6:30AM to make the most of our bird watching trip. We travelled to LinGang City, which is a city that was built from “nothing.” The original plan for the city was to increase infrastructure; however even though the city is now built, no one is living there. It will probably remain empty until a “Light train” is built connecting the city to Shanghai. The lake in LinGang is called “Ei Shui.” The city planners who constructed the area loaded thousands of freshwater fish into the water and unfortunately they could not survive the brackish water conditions. The lesson here is that in order to build a sustainable city, it is important that experts from multiple different sectors are consulted. Bird watching was very exciting as we were lucky enough to see a number different species. The first bird our team spotted was a “Long-tailed Shrike.” This bird has a bill like a raptor but is actually a perching bird and the entire group is often nicknamed “The Butcher Birds” because they typically skewer their prey on spines of trees and shrubs. We also spotted many “egrets” which we believe catfish and aquatic invertebrates; we believe we saw a “Chinese Egret” because we recognized some yellow on its bill and feet. Besides birds we also saw two types of crabs and some mudskippers. We learnt that mudskippers are extremely adaptive creatures because they can survive in both fresh and seawater conditions. Along the coastal breakwater we saw a number of large fishing dip nets suspended from platforms, and even saw one of them in action. We then travelled to the Nanhui Dohgfan Wildlife Sanctuary to walk along the boardwalk there and continue our bird watching adventures. We were given a special introduction to the site by Mr. Hu. We were very fortunate to experience the sanctuary as it is not normally open to the public. The sanctuary started in 2002 to help compensate for the massive habitat destruction which greatly impacted the migratory path for many birds flying to Australia.
(Shuyuan Village view.)
We had special guests to lunch who were from the WWF and the conservation wetland center in Shuyuan Village. Local foods were served which included tea tree mushroom with eel, clam meatballs and jellyfish. After lunch, we went to the Laboratory of Marine Fisheries Remote Sensing and GIS Technology in Shanghai Ocean University. A representative introduced what they goals and purpose of their laboratory was about. There is a cascade of computers that would quantify the data and make models about weather foresting, ocean current and fish migrating patterns. The data that are collected are about the surface temperature, chlorophyll, suspended particles. The approach is to have a rolling 5-10 day average for all parameters so that, if a cloud is obscuring satellite data collection there are no " holes" in the data. These models are integrated into maps and then a conclusive picture is created for the use of management of high seas. Due to the high seas being international waters, the supervision of it is a collective effort from many countries to control fish stock and prevent overfishing. The Chongming Island visit was cancelled due to the heat and humidity causing health concerns among the students so instead the rest of the afternoon was spent in the hotel until dinnertime where we went to a cafeteria style restaurant. Afterwards, we went to Fudan University where we had a guest lecturer Danqing Huang who talked about the work that the university does in Chongming Island and other wetlands. There were an additional three student seminars. Yi Zhang talked about bioremediation, Hu Yiyao discussed about the wetland and waterbirds in Dongtan wetland and Wang Junyan about impact of Shanghai economic development on the coastal environment.
(Laboratory of Marine Fisheries Remote Sensing and GIS Technology, Shanghai Ocean University.)
2010年8月12日 今天的上海又是一个高温天，最高温度超过了39度，我们6点就早早地起了床，赶在交通早高峰来临之前出发，前往位于上海陆地最东南端的临港新城和南汇东滩野生动物禁猎区。 临港新城距上海市区50公里，规划面积296.6平方公里，是上海洋山深水港的配套工程之一，于2003年正式启动。这是一个在滩涂和湿地上建立起的新城区。蓝图中的临港新城，将是一座集先进制造、现代物流、研发服务、出口加工、教育培训等功能为一体的现代化综合型海滨城区。临港新城的中心是一个巨型人工湖——滴水湖。它的水体由淡水和海水混合而成。 我们首先来到了南汇嘴观海公园，翻下大坝走到潮间带中近距离观察滩涂上的植被和底栖动物以及水鸟。滩涂上生长着芦苇和互花米草群落，还有许多招潮蟹、沙蟹和弹涂鱼穿梭其间。我们看到了两种海燕、两种野鸭、白鹭、苍鹭、青脚滨鹬等鸟类。大家都十分兴奋。
(Cooling down after a hot walk on the board walk.)
随后我们来到了南汇野生动物禁猎区。禁猎区成立于2007年，占地面积122平方公里。顺着湿地上的木板路，我们进入了湿地的中央位置，在那里，我们观察到了不少鸟类如：池鹭、夜鹭、骨顶鸡、须浮鸥等，还从两侧的标示板上了解了不少这个湿地里存在的各种迁徙鸟类。虽然这不是观鸟的最佳季节，我们还是看到了不少的鸟类。同时我们组的曹政也注意到，木板路上的蜘蛛只有一种球蛛的存在，显然这是一件值得思考的事。同时一些姑娘们还下水，亲身感受了“湿地”。 临港新城的开发与海岸湿地保护之间的关系是一个值得深思的问题。在上午的考察中我们也了解到，滴水湖虽然建成的时间不长，但也出现了水体富营养化的问题，一方面是由于新城周边的生活和工业污水排放，另一方面也是作为人工湖的滴水湖在设计建设时并未考虑好其水体自净能力。政府曾简单地希望通过投入淡水鱼苗来改善富营养化问题，但未能获得成功。因为滴水湖的湖底未防止渗水而采用了水泥浇筑的底面使水生植物和底栖动物难以生活。滴水湖的岸线原本也全部是水泥防护墙，而现在已拆除了部分，希望通过恢复自然岸线，达到逐渐净化水体的目的。通过之前任文伟教授的讲座和实地观察，我们也感到河口海岸湿地对上海的重要性，难以想象如果失去了湿地这一重要的缓冲地带，台风、海平面上涨、海水倒灌等问题将会严重威胁到上海的生态安全。 中午我们在书院人家用餐并简单地休整了一下。 下午我们来到上海海洋大学，在海大薛教授的带领下参观了上海海洋大学渔业遥感监控GIS实验室。实验室通过接收美国NOAA卫星信号对海洋环境进行监测[/caption] 并预报渔业资源情况。实验室分为卫星输入与数据处理、单轨产品制作、卫星产品融合与系统运控、海洋渔业遥感数据库、静止卫星数据处理和渔场速报与渔业资源评估这几个部分。这个先进的实验室给我们留下了深刻的影响。 由于时间和高温的原因，我们很遗憾不能前往崇明西滩进行考察，傍晚就回到了复旦大学继续进行研讨会，但今天仍然是充实和收获的一天～！
Boardwalk LinGang Wetland Sanctuary.
(GPS track of travels on August 12th.)